Diospyros montana R. commonly known as Bistendu, is one of the medicinally important plant, widely distributed throughout India. Almost all parts of Diospyros montana R. possess good therapeutic value in traditional system of medicine. Method: The present investigation deals with the pharmacognostic investigation of the fresh leaves, stem bark, root and seeds of Diospyros montana R. which were used to determine its morphological, macroscopical, microscopical (including quantitative microscopy) physicochemical and chromatographic profile. Result: The microscopy of leaf revealed the presence of anomocytic stomata, multicellular glandular trichomes; prism shaped and clustered crystals of calcium oxalate. The microscopy of bark reveals the presence of sclerides or stone cells, pericyclic fibers, medullary rays. The root shows the presence of cork cells, cortex, medullary rays and xylem parenchyma. The total ash, acid insoluble ash, water‐soluble ash values of leaves were 14.535% w/w, 0.85% w/w, 12.60% w/w respectively. For roots it was 16.25% w/w, 0.25% w/w, 1.25% w/w respectively and for stem bark and seeds it was 7.85% w/w, 1.1% w/w, 6.6% w/w and 2.03% w/w, 0.10% w/w and 0.50% w/w respectively. HPTLC studies were also carried out for detection and quantification of β-sitosterol in leaves and roots of Diospyros montana R. Conclusion: The findings would be useful towards establishing pharmacognostic standards on identity, purity and quality and also helpful in preparing the monograph for future references.