Objective: Rhododendron arboreum Sm. commonly known as Burans is an important plant of the Himalayan region. It is the national flower of Nepal and state tree of Uttarakhand. The present study pertains to the pharmacognostical evaluation of R. arboreum from Uttarakhand. Methods: Macroscopy, microscopy by free hand section cutting and with the help of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were done along with the physicochemical analysis. Preliminary phytochemical studies and fluorescence analysis was also carried out. Results: Results revealed that the leaves contain paracytic or amphiparacytic stomata in cluster form. The epidermal cells were long and spongy. The cells also contain some grooves and papillae throughout the surface. Preliminary phytochemical analysis showed the presence of different secondary metabolites like alkaloids carbohydrates, phenols, proteins, saponins, and tannins. Conclusion: R. arboreum from Uttarakhand region was investigated for its morphological and cytological characteristics with the help of scanning electron microscopy for the first time. The results provide details on the presence of several specific characters which are important for the identification of the genuine crude drug.