Pharmacognostic and Physico-Chemical Studies on the Leaves of Cardiospermum halicacabum L.
Cardiospermum halicacabum L. (Sapindaceae) commonly known as ‘Balloon vine’ is a dioecious, hairy, climbing vine with balloon like clusters of white flowers framed by finely dissected, delicate foliage. The leaf has a bitter taste; the entire plant is used as anti-inflammatory, antibiotic against many bacteria, antiparasitic, antipyretic and as an analgesic. The ethanolic extract of leaves exhibits significant anti-arthritic effect. The present study was therefore carried out to provide requisite pharmacognostic details about the leaf. Pharmacognostic investigation of the leaf and leaf powder of Cardiospermum halicacabum L. was carried out to determine its morphological, anatomical and phytochemical diagnostic features. The preliminary phytochemical analysis and Thin Layer Chromatography has been performed. The leaf was also characterized for its physico-chemical properties. The presence of covering trichomes and anomocytic type of stomata are the characteristic features observed in the microscopy of leaf. Preliminary phytochemical analysis indicated presence of tannins, saponins, flavonoids, glycosides and cardiac glycosides. The results of the study could be useful in setting some diagnostic indices for the identification and preparation of a monograph of the plant.