Dalbergia ecastaphyllum (L.) Taub. is a shrubby of Tropical America and Africa. It is recognized as the main botanical source of red-propolis, and also by its uses in folk medicine. This work was performed by light and scanning electron microscopy in order to carry out an anatomical and histochemical study of leaves and stems of this species,to find distinctive characters to support the quality control of its ethnodrugs and derivatives. The leaf epidermis is hypostomatic with straight to curved anticlinal cell walls, papillose on the abaxial surface, with thickened cuticle and coated with epiculticular waxes as rosette. The mesophyll is dorsiventral, with palisade 2-3-layered and the spongy 4-6-layered. The petiole and midrib have vascular system collateral. The stem is cylindrical, with an uniseriate epidermis coated with thickened cuticle and angular collenchyma. The vascular system is a continuous ectofloic siphonostele. Resin idioblasts are concentrated in the inner area of the vascular tissue of the midrib, petiole and stem. The leaf and stem anatomy and histochemistry of D. ecastaphyllum provided distinctive characters for this species that can be used as an additional support for its taxonomy and for the quality control of their ethnodrugs.