Introduction: Erythroxylum monogynum belonging to family Erythroxylaceae is commonly found in southern parts of India. Traditionally, leaves of the plant possess high medicinal value and known for the treatment of diabetes, jaundice and to kill intestinal worms, which are scientifically reported. However, no elaborative pharmacognostic study of leaves has been performed yet. Objective: To pharmacognostically standardize the leaves by studying anatomical characters of transversal section and powdered leaves. Material and methods: Leaf samples were studied by macroscopy, microscopy, physicochemical and preliminary phytochemical analysis as recommended by WHO. Results: Externally the leaves are elliptic - lanceolate, alternate, base attenuate, apex obtuse and entire margin. Internally it shows the presence of paracytic stomata confined to lower epidermis, conjoint, collateral arc shaped vascular bundles encircled by sclerenchyma, lignified fibers and xylem vessels with spiral thickening. Powder microscopy revealed the presence of epidermis with papillae, phytochemical and physicochemical of powdered drug proved useful to differentiate the powdered drug material. Conclusion: The establishment of botanical features of leaf material will be useful in identification and standardization of Erythroxylum monogyum in obtaining quality formulations.